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TO BE OR NOT TO BE(《哈姆雷特》中的一段独白)

TO BE OR NOT TO BE 解释为生存还是毁灭(朱生豪译本)——《哈姆雷特》(英-莎士比亚)中的经典独白(第三幕第一场)。

最初发表的哈姆雷特的三个版本包括《第一四开本》,《第二四开本》及《第一对开本》。

此版本保留了《第一对开本》(First Folio)中的绝大部分文字,更新了拼写以及五个来自《第二四开本》(Second Quarto)的五个通用的修正

To be, or not to be, that is the question:

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,

Or to take Arms against a Sea of troubles,

And by opposing end them: to die, to sleep;

No more; and by a sleep, to say we end

The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks

That Flesh is heir to? 'Tis a consummation

Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep,

perchance to Dream; aye, there's the rub,

For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come,

When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,

Must give us pause. There's the respect

That makes Calamity of so long life:

For who would bear the Whips and Scorns of time,

The Oppressor's wrong, theproudman's Contumely,

The pangs ofdispisedLove, the Law’s delay,

The insolence of Office, and the spurns

That patient merit of the unworthy takes,

When he himself might his Quietus make

With a bare Bodkin? Who would Fardels bear, [F:these Fardels]

To grunt and sweat under a weary life,

But that the dread of something after death,

The undiscovered country, from whose bourn

No traveller returns, puzzles the will,

And makes us rather bear those ills we have,

Than fly to others that we know not of.

Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,

And thus the native hue of Resolution

Is sicklied o'er, with the pale cast of Thought,

And enterprises of greatpitchand moment, [F:pith]

With this regard their Currents turnawry, [F:away]

And lose the name of Action. Soft you now,

The fair Ophelia? Nymph, in thy Orisons

Be all my sins remember'd.

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark: Act Ⅲ, Scene Ⅰ

To be, or not to be, that is the question:

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,

Or to take arms against a sea of troubles

And by opposing end them. To die — to sleep,

No more; and by a sleep to say we end

The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks

That flesh is heir to, 'Tis a consummation

Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep;

To sleep, perchance to dream — ay, there's the rub:

For in that sleep of death what dreams may come,

When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,

Must give us pause. There's the respect

That makes calamity of so long life.

For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,

Th' oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,

The pangs of despised love, the law's delay,

The insolence of office, and the spurns

That patient merit of th' unworthy takes,

When he himself might his quietus make

With a bare bodkin? Who would fardels bear,

To grunt and sweat under a weary life,

But that the dread of something after death,

The undiscover'd country from whose bourn

No traveller returns, puzzles the will,

And makes us rather bear those ills we have

Than fly to others that we know not of?

Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,

And thus the native hue of resolution

Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,

And enterprises of great pitch and moment

With this regard their currents turn awry

And lose the name of action.

生存还是毁灭,这是一个值得考虑的问题;默然忍受命运暴虐的毒箭,或是挺身反抗人世无涯的苦难,通过斗争把它们扫个干净,这两种行为,哪一种更加高尚?死了;睡着了;什么都完了;要是在这一种睡眠之中,我们心头的创痛,以及其他无数血肉之躯所不能避免的打击,都可以从此消失,那正是我们求之不得的结局。死了;睡着了;睡着了也许还会做梦;嗯,阻碍就在这儿:因为当我们摆脱了这一具朽腐的皮囊以后,在那死的睡眠里,究竟将要做些什么梦,那不能不使我们踌躇顾虑。人们甘心久困于患难之中,也就是为了这个缘故;谁愿意忍受人世的鞭挞和讥嘲、压迫者的凌辱、傲慢者的冷眼、被轻蔑的爱情的惨痛、法律的迁延、官吏的横暴和费尽辛勤所换来的小人的鄙视,要是他只要用一柄小小的刀子,就可以清算他自己的一生?谁愿意负着这样的重担,在烦劳的生命的压迫下呻吟流汗,倘不是因为惧怕不可知的死后,惧怕那从来不曾有一个旅人回来过的神秘之国,是它迷惑了我们的意志,使我们宁愿忍受的折磨,不敢向我们所不知道的痛苦飞去?这样,重重的顾虑使我们全变成了懦夫,决心的赤热的光彩,被审慎的思维盖上了一层灰色,伟大的事业在这一种考虑之下,也会逆流而退,失去了行动的意义。

——《哈姆雷特》(英·莎士比亚)中的经典独白

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